What is a teardrop cervical fracture?
A flexion teardrop fracture occurs when flexion of the spine, along with vertical axial compression, causes a fracture of the anteroinferior aspect of the vertebral body. This fragment is displaced anteriorly and resembles a teardrop (see the image below).
Is a teardrop fracture stable?
The tear drop fracture of the lower cervical spine is generally associated with a high incidence of neurological deficits and surgery is needed to treat this injury. Tear drop fracture of C2 is usually a stable fracture that is amendable to conservative treatment.
What is flexion distraction injury?
Flexion-distraction injuries occur due to distractive forces causing disruption of the posterior and middle spinal columns. These fractures classically consist of a fracture line through the posterior bony elements; involvement of the posterior ligamentous complex is, however, common.
What ligaments are severed during a hangman’s fracture?
There is some damage to the anterior longitudinal ligament and significant structural damage to the posterior longitudinal ligament and C2/C3 disk. This fracture is unstable.
Is extension teardrop fracture unstable?
Extension teardrop fractures are stable in flexion and unstable in extension as the anterior longitudinal ligament is disrupted. Extension teardrop is not considered as severe as flexion teardrop fractures.
Where is the anterior longitudinal ligament?
The anterior longitudinal ligament lies on the ventral surface of the vertebral body through the entire length of the vertebral column; it also sweeps around the lateral aspect of the vertebral bodies (Hayashi et al., 1977).
What happens when you fracture your C2 vertebrae?
Symptoms of a minor C2 fracture can include problems moving the neck, pain, swelling, tenderness, trouble swallowing, loss of feeling or a tingling sensation in the arms and legs,numbness or pain at the base of the head, double vision, or loss of consciousness.